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 Заголовок сообщения: Reproductive strategy and sexual development
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Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

Cornwell RE, Law Smith MJ, Boothroyd LG, Moore FR, Davis HP, Stirrat M, Tiddeman B, Perrett DI.

School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, South Street, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JP, UK. rcornwel@uccs.edu

Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on the rapidity of their sexual development. Fast developing individuals prefer opposite-sex partners with an increased level of sexually dimorphic facial characteristics.

PMID: 17118929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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СообщениеДобавлено: 07 июн 2009, 13:46 
Админ - основатель ресурса
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Women's body morphology and preferences for sexual partners' characteristics

Boguslaw Pawlowski and Grazyna Jasienska
Department of Anthropology, University of Wroclaw, 50-138 Wroclaw, Poland
Departamento de Ecologia Humana CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Mérida, 97310 Mérida, Mexico
Institute of Anthropology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 50-951 Wroclaw, Poland
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Received 18 December 2006; accepted 3 July 2007. Available online 27 September 2007.

Abstract

Mate preferences are condition dependent (i.e., females in better biological condition might be more demanding with respect to fitness-relevant male traits). Such traits usually indicate male biological quality or ability to secure resources that could be invested in offspring. Here we study female preferences for male resources, commitment, attractiveness, good sense of humor, and sensuality (when seeking both long-term and short-term partners) in relation to women's morphological traits such as height, weight, waist and hip girth, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). We show that preferences for resources and attractiveness do indeed depend on women's phenotype. Women with relatively lower WHR and BMI more strongly prefer resources in a potential long-term partner than those with higher WHR and BMI. However, when controlling for age, place of residence, and whether they have had children, it is WHR (but not BMI) that influences female preference for resources and attractiveness. Women with higher WHR (those who, according to many studies, are considered as less attractive) are more prone to prefer physical attractiveness in a potential long-term partner. Furthermore, despite commitment having received the highest score in a long-term context, the preference for this trait in a potential partner was not related to women's body morphology. We suggest evolutionary and proximate explanations for such condition-dependent preferences.

Keywords: Conditional preferences; Resources; Attractiveness; Commitment; WHR; BMI

This study was supported by a grant from the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (to G.J.).


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